Diet and nutrition are critical factors influencing the health of humans and non-human primates. It is well known that primate dietary strategies vary in response to fluctuations in food availability. Despite these plastic responses, fluctuations in food availability still have apparent consequences for reproduction, survival, and health of primates – patterns that have been documented in longitudinal studies within populations and comparative studies across species. Yet we still lack a basic understanding of how nutrient availability varies in natural habitats, how primates respond to this variance by modifying their nutritional strategies, and the interaction between nutrient intake and health in primates. This workshop will bring together researchers who examine the interaction between nutrition, energetics, and health in human and non-human primates and how they survive when faced with challenging environments.